Dr. Akira Matsumori, one of our esteemed myocarditis researchers on the Myocarditis Foundation’s Medical Advisory Board, recently wrote a paper on “Myocarditis and Autoimmunity”. This was printed in the Volume 21, of the Journal of Expert Review of Cardiovascular Therapy, 2023.

Here is a brief introduction, but if you would like to read the complete paper, please click on the link below.


Autoimmune myocarditis may develop due to heterogeneous causes. Myocarditis is often caused by viral infections, but it can also be caused by systemic autoimmune diseases. Immune checkpoint inhibitors and virus vaccines induce immune activation, and they can cause the development of myocarditis, as well as several immune-related adverse events. The development of myocarditis is dependent on the genetic factors of the host, and the major histocompatibility complex (MHC) may be an important determinant of the type and severity of the disease. However, non-MHC immunoregulatory genes may also play a role in determining susceptibility.

Area covered 

This review summarizes the current knowledge of the etiology, pathogenesis, diagnosis, and treatment of autoimmune myocarditis with a particular focus on viral infection, autoimmunity, and biomarkers of myocarditis.

Expert opinion 

An endomyocardial biopsy may not be the gold standard for the diagnosis of myocarditis. Cardiac magnetic resonance imaging is useful in diagnosing autoimmune myocarditis. Recently identified biomarkers of inflammation and myocyte injury are promising for the diagnosis of myocarditis when measured simultaneously. Future treatments should focus on the appropriate diagnosis of the etiologic agent, as well as on the specific stage of the evolution of immune and inflammatory processes.

Myocarditis and Autoimmunity

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